Boggo S2 E12 – Red Flag Protests

Boggo S2 E12 – Red Flag Protests

A century ago this month, one of the most violent political protests, indeed probably the first real protest of its kind – marched its way through the streets of Brisbane City.  What would ensue over the coming days would change Brisbane forever. It would also see thirteen men locked up in Boggo Road Gaol for long sentences with hard labour.

Australia had been at war for the preceding five years. It was 1919 the end of the First World War, a bloody and terrible series of campaigns.  The war was over and the soldiers had returned, all of them changed forever. We had changed forever.   The politics of war was not over, however,  this was the era that real freedom of speech and beliefs would begin.  This political belief system would also turn horribly violent.  This is the first time in Queensland’s history we had ever seen something like this…. but lets step back a little bit.

The root of the protests that would happen in the coming days in March of 1919 would be the War Precautions Act of 1914.

War Precautions Act 1914

The War Precautions act is described as  – An Act to enable the Governor-General to make Regulations and Orders for the safety of the Commonwealth during the present state of war.

The Act would cover all types of regulations governing the use of transportation, lighting and even homing pigeons right through to the sinister type things like trespassing, spreading reports that might misinform or cause alarm or being a sympathizer to any enemy of the Commonwealth.

In Brisbane, there was a large group of Bolshevik nationalists,  not intentionally violent by any means however very political in nature.  It is this group of people that through the right to peaceful protest would be the commencement of an all out war for Brisbane over the next few days.

The Red Flag Procession

The Bolshevik community in Brisbane had requested permission to peacefully march through the streets of Brisbane to the Domain to hold a public meeting in protest against the continuance of the War Precautions Act despite war being over.  The permission had been granted on the condition that (as the War Precautions Act Prohibited) no red flags or other political items be displayed.   The conditions were agreed upon and on the afternoon of the 23rd of March the  procession would leave from Trades Hall in Turbot Street and weave its way through the streets of Brisbane to the Domain, adjacent to the Botanical Gardens and the Parliamentary Buildings.

However, At around 2pm hundreds of men, women and children formed a procession with the children and women taking the lead.  All members of the procession war something red.  A red handkerchief, a sash, red ties and pieces of ribbon.  Some members of the procession defiantly carried huge red flags.

The Evening Telegraph newspaper in Charters Towers shared the most comprehensive view of the drama.  We publish here exactly as it was written.

RED FLAG PROCESSION

Evening Telegraph (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1901 – 1921), Monday 24 March 1919, page 3

Telegrams.

BOLSHEVIK RUMPUS IN BRISBANE. RUSSIAN RED FLAG PROCESSIONISTS.

CONFLICT WITH THE POLICE. ACTING PREMIER DECLINES TO COMMENT.

BRISBANE, Sunday.

Brisbane’s Bolsheviks were seen in their true colours yesterday. They attacked the police with sticks and stones and- forcibly carried the Red Flag through the city streets to the Domain, whore they held a demonstration and congratulated themselves upon the success of the proceedings. Between two o’clock and half-past two, men, women and children assembled in largo numbers to take part in a protest meeting against the continuance of the War Precautions Act.

They wore red ties, pieces of red ribbon in the laps of their coats, and red sashes and dresses, whilst some of the more venturesome carried red flags. Mr Wright, President of the Brisbane Industrial Council, urged the processionists not to display the Red Flag, His advice was unheeded. The parade eventually formed up and was about to move off to the Domain. The women and children were in the lead followed by Russians, the majority of whom wore armed with huge red flags attached to stout poles. As the procession was about to move off Sub-Inspector Brosnan stood in front and, addressing the women said, “Wo will not allow the procession to proceed unless these red flags are put away.” It looked probable that the procession would prove a “wash out’ “Then the police called upon the Russians to surrender their flags. The singing, of -‘L’Internationale” started the march .to the Domain. Sub-Inspector Brosnan made a grab at a red flag carried by a- powerful looking Russian, and a fierce struggle ensued till the officer was overpowered by weight of numbers. Sub-Inspector McNeill, Acting-Sergeant Coman, Davis and four constables attempted at’ other parts of the procession to disarm men who carried rod flags, but the eight officers ‘and men were no match for 300 to 400 able bodied processionists, who burled their weight at the. police whenever they made a stand. At the corner of Ann Street and Edward ‘Street Sub-Inspector Brosnan was ahead of the procession end Troopers F. Harris,’ C. Bateman, W. Aspinall and W Wighton, who were waiting for the ‘”call on the part of the police, attempted to bring the procession to a halt by extending themselves on the road and, facing the mob. The- Russians,” however, used their red -flags attached to long poles to such- ‘effect that the horses would not stand -‘-The.’ troopers formed up again and charged the mob, but were again ‘beaten back. The Russians struck them with’ great force upon the wrists, and ‘-belaboured the horses about the head. ‘.’All the time the processionists were singing, shouting, jeering at the police, and waving their flags. Turning, into Queen Street at the head of. the procession, the troopers made a number of dashes into the crowd,’ and It looked for a moment as If they had succeeded in holding the mob. A particularly heavy rush on the part of the Russians, and others, who were being strengthened all along the route convinced the Police that they had no chance of making a fight of it. However, they stuck to their work and attacked the body of the procession, while, the troopers made charge after charge. Some of those marching evidently expected that the police would attempt to intervene, and in their pockets, they had a supply of stones which they used with deadly effect on the haunches of the horses. One trooper received such a heavy blow on the wrist that he was forced to ride with one hand on the reins, and at the same time urge his mount to ride at the red flags and the howling mob. The Russians seemed more pleased the nearer they got to the Domain. Through George Street they picked up a number of reinforcements who awaited them. They were overjoyed when they witnessed the success their main body had achieved and did not hesitate to say so. They added to the chorus by singing “Solidarity” and “If over. I be a soldier.” The acting Premier, Mr Theodore, last night declined to make any comment on the disturbance. The Police Commissioner Is also reticent.

 

The day was only just beginning.  Returned Diggers were most displeased with the protest in the first place and on hearing of the trouble they too took to the streets.  By the time the procession had reached the gates of the Domain there were the protesters on one side,  the diggers on the other and the police attempting to keep order in the middle.   The gates of the Domain having been locked to prevent the protesters gaining access caused even more problems, before eventually the decision was made to allow the protest and meeting to happen.

The Diggers, however, decided to take matters into their own hands.  A shout of “Lets Raid the Bolsheviks headquarters” saw a group of diggers form up and march across Victoria bridge toward the headquarters.  However, they were quickly discouraged when shots were fired from inside the building of the Bolshevik Headquarters in Merivale Street, South Brisbane.

At the end of Day one… we saw Thirteen Protestors in Boggo Road Gaol.

Thirteen Protestors in Boggo Road Gaol.

Thirteen members of the procession were taken into custody and lodged in Boggo Road Gaol for a period of 6 months.  These prisoners included returned Australian serviceman and Bolshevik Russians alike.  Some of these we are fortunate to have found images of.

Day two – The Battle for Merivale Street

From the diary of Constable O’Driscoll we read what happens next.

The following day rumours began to circulate of a plan to set the Russian Hall on fire. In the evening up to 8,000 men, some armed, assembled on Merivale Street and within an hour, a fierce battle started between ex-soldiers and police, with Constable Mick O’Driscoll once again was in the thick of the onslaught:

At about 7pm a strong force of police, with rifles and fixed bayonets, marched into Merivale Street, and was disposed in two lines stretching across the street and about 100 yards apart. Drawn up in the rectangle behind their armed colleagues were hundreds of police armed with batons, whilst a strong detachment of mounted police were stationed in Russell Street, close by. Sounds of soldiers singing “keep the home fires burning” and “Australia will be there” reached us in the rectangle. The air was tense and electric as the 50 odd men in blue came to the “on guard” position facing the soldiers now advancing towards them at the double. The diggers came on purposely, pausing only when they came in contact with the cold steel. The pressure from the crowd behind steadily mounted and eventually a concerted rush forced their leaders on to the points of the bayonets. Meanwhile a section of the mob, armed with palings and scrap iron, tried to infiltrate around the front lines of police, but were repulsed by the police armed with batons. The men in the ranks were receiving frequent injuries and the police casualties were mounting. Excitement and feeling became intense throughout the fighting, and many policemen were noticed with blood flowing down their faces.

The battle raged for two hours. Commissioner Urquart was stabbed in the right shoulder with a bayonet, but returned to the scene after his wound was dressed at the Mater Hospital. Sub-Inspector McNeill was hit in the forehead with an iron bar, Sergeant Ferguson sustained a fracture to the skull, mounted Senior Constable Bell had a broken rib, Constables Bateman and Byrne received bullet wounds to the arm and body. Plain-clothes Constable O’Driscoll was struck in the knee with a bottle. A total of 22 policemen and two civilians were listed as injured in the struggle.

This image was extracted from the Queensland Police Journal June 11 1919.

 

We would like to acknowledge the assistance of the Queensland Police Museum in researching and publishing this story.

In this episode of BOGGO, Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Co-Ordinator discuss the protests, the Battle for Merivale street and much more about this story.  Tune in to BOGGO the official podcast of Boggo Road Gaol to hear more.

You can stand in the spaces that these political prisoners were held every day on our History Tour for tour times and prices visit www.boggoroadgaol.com

 

Boggo S2 E11 – The Secret Inquiry

BOGGO S2 E11 – The Secret Inquiry

In the 1950s conditions at Boggo Road Gaol were at fever pitch.  The prison was horribly over-crowded, prisoners and officers were unhappy.  There were riots, protests and regular violence. Finally, late one night there was an escape attempt by notorious violent offenders.  This attempt and one officers firm stance would be the subject of a secret inquiry held within the walls of Boggo Road Gaol.

The Attempt

In October 1953,  Boggo Road Gaol was at capacity, in fact, it was well over capacity.  During the preceeding month… there were up to 60 extra prisoners being held in Boggo Road Gaol.  These prisoners were being locked in less secure buildings and even left out of cells and secured in a block.

Two young prisoners were among 20 prisoners that were loose in number 1 division Boggo Road Gaol in the A Wing Cell block.  The cells on the three tiers of the block already being occupied the officers had no choice but to simply secure the extra inmates in the block… the prisoners sleeping on the floor in the hallways.

These two prisoners took advantage of this freedom by breaking through a lattice door in the cellblock and escaping into Number 2 yard.  It was just as they were climbing over a picket fence into the track that they were seen by guards and rounded up using fire hoses.

The Punishment

In the inquiry to follow, the prisoners were punished with an additional month on their sentence for attempted escape.   The officer however would be the subject of a major inquiry.  Ultimately it would be decided that he would be allowed to remain in the job, however, his pay would be cut significantly from £702-10 a year to £687-10 a year.

 

The Inquiry

The officer, Waldemar Howard Winsen admitted that he had left his post to go to the kitchen to stoke the fire, and later to the woodyard to obtain more wood before returning to his post.

However, when his Barrister Mr William Boden stated that he was in possession of orders that the officers were required to stoke the fire in the kitchen at night and that since then a memorandum changing these orders.   Also that the prison was extensively overcrowded and that the officers lives were in danger.  Comptroller General of Prisons Mr Rutherford demanded that the setting for the inquiry be removed from the Public court of Petty sessions to the security of Boggo Road Gaol.  Of course,  He was in control of the prison, therefore no public or press would be permitted.

The inquiry would then become secret and held behind prison walls.   Of course, there would also then be no public record of anything that is said in the inquiry.

The public smelling a cover up… would complain extensively.  Eventually, some two weeks later, a secondary inquiry would be held again in the court of petty sessions.  However, none of the evidence that was obtained from the secret inquiry would be shared in court.   It was dodgy from the start.

 

The Outcome

There was however a significant outcome from this escape attempt and the secret inquiry that followed. The results would affect Boggo Road Gaol forever.

To find out more listen to BOGGO the official podcast of Boggo Road Gaol.  Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Coordinator discuss the inquiry in full and its outcome.

 

BOGGO S2 E10 – The Black Hand

Boggo S2 E10 – The Black Hand

Mafia activity has been known to exist in Australia’s southern states for decades. Many however would not know that in the 1920s and 1930s Queensland had its very own Mafia.  Known as the Black Hand they were every bit as dangerous as their southern counterparts.  This group of migrant Italian cane field workers was full of extortionists, thieves, pimps, rapists and cold-blooded murderers.  Four of these men would end up in Boggo Road Gaol.

 

Mafia activity has been known to exist in Australia’s southern states for decades. Many however would not know that in the 1920s and 1930s Queensland had its very own Mafia.  Known as the Black Hand they were every bit as dangerous as their southern counterparts.  This group of migrant Italian cane field workers was full of extortionists, thieves, pimps, rapists and cold-blooded murderers.  Four of these men would end up in Boggo Road Gaol.

Black Hand in Queensland

During the 1920’s, Australia’s sugar cane plantations attracted a steady supply of labourers, many willing to work for lower scale wages. As such, the northeast Australian state of Queensland attracted large numbers of migrant workers. Alongside numerous other ethnic groups, Italian families settled in the coastal towns of Cairns, Townsville and Brisbane, and in particular, the inland towns such as Ayr, Ingham and Innisfail where the work was plentiful.

The Black Hand operated on a simple method of extortion.  It would loan a person money… usually the poorest people…. And when they couldn’t pay the unreasonable percentage… threats were made and when they still couldn’t pay violent retribution would take place.  It was a terrible business but one that the Black Hand utilised very well.  Making the members very wealthy, but also making them targets for retribution by other members of the hand as well.

 

Known Members of the Black Hand

BOSS – Vincenzo D’Agostino

SOTTO CAPO ( Right Hand)  Francesco Femio  alias Antonio Arena

LIEUTENANTS – Domenico Belle, Domenico Strano and Giuseppe Mammone

 

Known Crew or suspected crew.

Giovanni Delfino

Domenico Scarcella

Saverio Militano

Antonio Spiallia

Antonio Cavallo

Ferdinand Legazzo

Vincenzo Speranzo

Mario Strano

Lorenzo Zucco

Giuseppe Parisi

Giuseppe Buetti

Giovanni Iacona.

 

Todays podcast story is a tale of retribution with a horribly bloody result.  The last four members of the list,  Zucco, Parisi, Buetti and Iacona are four men who through their involvement in the Black Hand would spend time in Boggo Road Gaol.

Here is the interesting case of Innisfail farmer Giuseppe Iacona. Following arguments regarding Black Hand letters delivered by Iacona to Patane and another farmer named Orario Denaro, on behalf of Lorenzo Zucco: – a notorious extortionist, blackmail artist and standover man in Cairns.  Zucco was trying to make a name for himself, attempting to rise through the ranks into the leadership of the Hand.

Iacona was visited by three members of the gang, who arrived at his property on the 11th of February 1934. Following an altercation and subsequent scuffle, Giuseppe Parisi and Giuseppe Buetti held Iacona down while Giuseppe Mammone cut off the man’s ears. Recuperating in hospital over the next three weeks, Iacona refused numerous requests to name his attackers, and the reasoning behind his non-cooperation would soon become clear.

Upon his release from the hospital, Iacona returned to his home and retrieved his shotgun. He confronted Mammone in the main street of Innisfail, and shot dead Mammone – the man who had mutilated him. Duly arrested for the revenge-murder, Iacona came clean on everything and named Parisi and Buetti as having also been involved, as he described the attack and his mutilation in court. Iacona received a life sentence for the murder of Mammone.

In the same court on the same day as the murder trial against Iacona was presented four men – Patane, Denaro, Parisi and Buete were brought to court with having done grievous bodily harm to Giovanni Iacona.

Patane and Denaro were found not to have a case to answer… how… we don’t know – while Parisi and Buetti received seven years each for the unlawful wounding of Iacona. All three men – Iacona, Parisi and Buetti would be locked up in Boggo Road Gaol for the duration of their sentence.  All of them – Likely in number 2 division due to the seriousness of their crimes.

Interestingly,  Lorenzo Zucco would also be arrested.  Earlier in that day again in the same court,  Patane and Denaro appeared as witnesses against Lorenzo Zucco, the extortionist and stand over man from Cairns  who had written the letters that started this whole mess in the first place! Zucco – found guilty – would be sentenced to seven years with Hard Labour in April of 1934 for crimes involving blackmail and threatening with violence.  He too would arrive in Boggo Road Gaol for his sentence…. Also in number 2 division.    One can only imagine how tense in could have been for the prison officers at the time.

Iacona denied being a part of the Black Hand and sending threats to other Italians, that he was a hard working battler. However research has proven otherwise. Mammone had been asked by Di’Agistino to intervene in the situation… Perhaps it was a message to Iacona to tow the line.. or perhaps it was a message to Zucco to keep off their turf.   Either way, it was ineffective and Mammone would be the ultimate victim.


The “Victim”

Mug shot #1916 Giuseppe Mammone, 15 February 1930. Possibly at Darlinghurst Police Station.

This photograph was one of a collection exhibited at City of Shadows an exhibition by the Justice and Police Museum in Sydney between 2005 and 2007.

Curator Peter Doyle suggests that, compared with the subjects of prison mug shots, “the subjects of the Special Photographs seem to have been allowed – perhaps invited – to position and compose themselves for the camera as they liked. Their photographic identity thus seems constructed out of a potent alchemy of inborn disposition, personal history, learned habits and idiosyncrasies, chosen personal style (haircut, clothing, accessories) and physical characteristics.”

Special Photograph no. 1916. Although labelled ‘G Mammona’, the mug shot shows Giuseppe Mammone, who was presumably interviewed and photographed in connection with the stabbing murder of Domenico Belle on Newtown Station, on the morning of 11 February 1930.

Earlier that day Belle had attempted to collect a debt of 15 pounds from Mammone, who ran a barbershop in Leichhardt. It was revealed at the coronial enquiry that Mammone had previously served time in Buffalo, New York, for manslaughter. Newspaper stories of the time repeatedly refer to Mammone as the main suspect in the case, although he was not charged.

This picture is one of a series of around 2500 “special photographs” taken by New South Wales Police Department photographers between 1910 and 1930. These “special photographs” were mostly taken in the cells at the Central Police Station, Sydney and are, as curator Peter Doyle explains, of “men and women recently plucked from the street, often still animated by the dramas surrounding their apprehension.

31217 / 1930 New South Wales. Police Dept.

Somehow.  Mammone never served any time in prison….  However he was interviewed in relation to a murder in Sydney in 1930.   The above photograph was taken at that interview.

In the reports pertaining to his murder, the following can be gleaned of his life.

Mammone was a storekeeper at Mourilyan.  He had been in Innisfail for the day. Shortly before 10am he was seen talking in the street where he was approached.  Four shots (some say five) were fired.  One in the head and the rest in the body. His brains were scattered about.   He was rushed to hospital however it was easily seen that he was already dead.

Mammone had made a name for himself all over the eastern seaboard of Australia, he was well connected and one of the most well known and travelled members of the Hand.  He was connected with at least twenty murders in the Innisfail, Ingham, Cairns and Ayr regions as well as numerous in other states of Australia.

Other than that detail biographical information on Mammone is scarce. As one would expect with an underworld figure of his note I suppose.

 

On the other hand.  Plenty is known about the other figures in this story.


Giovanni Iacona –  The “Murderer”

Name:  Giovanni Iacona

Native Place:  Italy

Year of Birth: 1902

Arrival per ship:  Palermo 1925 from Italy

Trade: Labourer

Religion:  Roman Catholic

Education:  Read and Write

Height:  5ft 1 inch

Weight: 9st 4lbs

Hair: Black

Eyes: Brown

Complexion: Dark

Build: Short

Marks or Features: Part of each ear missing;  Operation scar right of navel; minus left little finger; scar back of left leg.

 

Tried at the Cairns  Circuit Court 9/4/1934  for the Wilful Murder –  Giuseppe Mammone alias Niccolo Mammone alias Mammona Sentence –  Imprisonment for Life

Deported per ship Viminale  1934  (no date) for Penal Island Lipari off Sicily  (known as Devils Island)

Fate – Unknown presumed dead.


Giuseppe Parisi

Name: Giuseppe Parisi

Native Place: – Italy

Year of Birth: 1905

Arrival: per ship Palermo in 1926

Trade:  Labourer

Religion:  Roman Catholic

Education:  Read and Write

Height:  5ft 7½ inches

Weight: 13st 10lbs

Hair: Black

Eyes: Brown

Complexion: Dark

Build: Stout

Marks or Features: Several scars on right hip.

 

Criminal History 

Tried at the Criminal Court Cairns  9th April 1934 –  Unlawfully wounding with intent to disfigure  – sentenced to 7 years Hard Labour

Deported per ship Esqualina  1934  (no date) for Penal Island Lipari off Sicily  (known as Devils Island)

Parisi survived and returned to Adelaide in the late 1940s


Giuseppe Buete

Name:  Giuseppe Buete  or Giuseppe Bueti or Giuseppe Bueto

Native Place:  America

Year of Birth: 1905

Arrival per ship:  Pere De Italia 1923 from Italy

Trade: Hairdresser

Religion:  Roman Catholic

Education:  Read and Write

Height:  5ft 2½ inches

Weight: 10st 1lbs

Hair: Black

Eyes: Brown

Complexion: Dark

Build: Stout

Marks or Features: Scar across right wrist

 

Criminal History 

Tried at Innisfail Police Court  3/10/1933    For having an Unlicensed pistol in possession    Sentence- £50  or 3 months

Tried at the Cairns Circuit Court 9/4/1934  for Unlawfully wounding with intent to disfigure   Sentence-  7 years Hard Labour.

Deported per ship Esqualina  1934  (no date) for Penal Island Lipari off Sicily  (known as Devils Island)

Executed for being a British spy during World War 2


At this point in history, Italy was being governed by notorious dictator Benito Mussolini.  Mussolini was a passionate believer in the prevention of embarrassment and disrepute of the mother land Italy.  Anyone who did so would feel his wrath. Prisoners at home and abroad were sentenced to the notorious Devils Island  a penal establishment located on the island of Lipari off Sicily.  This island was a death sentence,  prisoners rarely survived.  It was a sentence for life… or until Mussolini saw fit to release you… which was never.    However at the time the Italian army were waging a bitter war in Ethiopia, East Africa in the Abyssinian desert.  Prisoners from Devils Island were used as cannon fodder in this war.

At the same time, prisoners in the Commonwealth of Australia that were foreigners and that were sentenced to serious crimes were deported from our shores.  This particularly was the case in Queensland where the death penalty had been repealed just a decade earlier.   The four Italian men locked up in Boggo Road Gaol would be no different.  However, when the decision was made to deport these men, a problem arose.   The government did not want to be held responsible for any ill will held between Iacona, Zucco, Parisi and Buete.  Obviously there was ill – will given their situation. The authorities were worried there would be another murder on the way home to Italy.   The men were sent home on separate ships.  Iacona and Zucco on the Viminale and Parisi and Buete on the Esqualina.

So it was,  Iacona, Parisi, Buete and Zucco were all deported back home to Italy.  Back home to Devils Island.  Back home to war in the Ethiopian Desert.

The fate of Iacona and Zucco is not known.  It is presumed that they perished in the battle for the Abyssinian Desert.  Parisi and Buete however would share very different fates.  Parisi would survive the war in the desert, he would make it back home and see the death of Mussolini himself, eventually Parisi would return to Australia settling in Adelaide in the late 1940s.   Buete  was not so lucky.  He was executed for being a British Spy and espionage during World War Two he was shot in the head and buried in an unmarked grave.

The Black Hand in Queensland is still known to this day,  in fact, people in the area that these events took place still will not discuss it to this day.  It is likely that there are still descendants of some of the families involved in the horrible crimes of the Black Hand.

We will have to discuss the Black Hand more in future episodes of Boggo.  There are so many fascinating stories of murder and mayhem in the cane farms of North Queensland.   But for now, be sure to listen to S2 Episode 10 of BOGGO – The Black Hand and hear all about these notorious figures.

Join Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Co-ordinator Sue Olsen as they dig into the secrets of The Black Hand in Queensland, uncovering its connection to the notorious Boggo Road Gaol. Listen to the episode on the Black Hand  S2 E10 of BOGGO – the official podcast of Boggo Road Gaol recorded live inside its walls.   You can see for yourself where these underworld figures were locked up,  tours operate of number 2 division daily at 11am for tour times and prices visit our website 

 

 

 

 

 

BOGGO S2 E9 – Workshops 90th Anniversary

BOGGO S2 E9 – PRISON WORKSHOPS – The 90th Anniversary

With the closure of St Helena Island as a prison in Queensland came the shift of long service men to Boggo Road Gaol.  What would now be the new number two division, the former prison for females would be moved elsewhere. The workshops for women were converted into the workshops for men.  Soon however the need for the transfer of workshops from St Helena would necessitate the construction of an all new workshops at Boggo Road Gaol. 2019 marks the 90th Anniversary of these workshops.

Massive changes came to Queensland’s prison system in late 1921.  The new system was ‘formed on the principle of reformation and not a vindictive desire to punish’.  The object of the new system was to better classify and separate prisoners and keep short term prisoners and minor offenders from long term offenders.

After more than 50 years of operation, HM Prison St Helena would become a prison farm. Male prisoners classified as long term were transferred to the mainland to Boggo Road.  Increasing costs to transport prisoners and supplies across Moreton Bay, and growing public resentment of a perceived “island paradise” being utilised by convicted felons, were behind the decision to wind down St Helena.

H.M Gaol Brisbane became H.M Prison Brisbane, more commonly called Brisbane Prison.  To accommodate the changes on 21st September, Brisbane Prison was re-organised into three separate sections – No.1 Division, No. 2 Division and a Female Division.

Carpenters Shop – Boggo Road Gaol

No. 1 Division

The 1883 Men’s Gaol was renamed No.1 Division. The wording “BRISBANE PRISON NO. 1” was added to the parapet. Inside its walls there were few other changes. In practise it continued to be the section used to hold short-term sentenced male prisoners, and those on remand awaiting trial or sentence, just as it had for decades. The yards were used to separate prisoners according to their classification.

 

Female Division

In September 1921 the few female prisoners were transferred from their purpose built prison into two wooden communal wards surrounded by a tall timber stockade. The ward buildings – the former V.D. hospital from Brisbane General Hospital had been moved from the Brisbane Hospital and erected to the south of the former Women’s Prison on Annerley Road. Ironically, not even 20 years after the prison designed to prevent the evils of association opened, women were again housed communally. This would remain the women’s prison for the next 30 years.

 

No. 2 Division

The former Women’s Prison was empties of its occupants as prisoners from the Men’s Gaol set about making alterations in preparations for the arrival of new occupants – long term sentenced men from St. Helena including, murderers, killers and other dangerous offenders.

Officially renamed No. 2 Division, the words on the parapet were amended from “H.M. PRISON FOR WOMEN” to “H.M. PRISON FOR MEN” the letters “WO” neatly covered to indicate the new use.  This alteration can still be seen today. Beneath these words “No.2” was painted. Inside the gatehouse, on the rear wall prisoners painted “B.P” for Brisbane Prison on the left hand side and “No.2” on the right.

The two female wards were reused as cell blocks for men with 40 cells available in each block, No.2 Division could hold up to 80 male prisoners.

The design of No. 2 Division – permitting single cell accommodation and prisoners and having yards to separate prisoners, would allow the separation of male prisoners according to their classification, which had proved difficult to administer on St. Helena.  There, some men were kept in associated wards “herded” together; minor offenders missed with experienced criminal; Promiscuous association” – sexual predation and homosexuality – were serious offences at the time. At St. Helena, communal accommodation had led to sexual assaults. Authorities hoped that sexual liaisons and crime could be limited in No.2 Division by walls, iron bars and doors.

 

The Workshop for Men (1921 – 1929)

Central to the new prison system was providing prisoners with meaningful work.

Tailoring and boot making were transferred in 1921 from St Helena to the former female workshop in No. 2 Division; the facilities were upgraded.  In April 1924, Tin-smithing was also transferred to No. 2 Division. As had been the case for decades, tailoring, boot-making and tin-smithing would be carried out under the supervision of trade instructors – warders with skills in these areas.  Long-term prisoners would be well-suited to learn a trade as they had the time to become proficient and would leave with a usable skill. Short-term prisoners carried out work that required less skill- brush-making, mat-weaving and basket-making.

 

NEW WORKSHOPS AND TUNNEL (1929)

Until early 1929, male prisoners continued to be employed in the former women’s prison workshop in No.2 Division.  On the 26th March a vast new saw-tooth roofed industrial complex opened, behind the eastern wall of the division. Encircling the “workshops” was a six metre high brick wall. A significant security feature was a central security tower – D Tower- manned by an armed officer. Mirrors high on the walls allowed the officer to see into every shop at all times. An underground tunnel – connecting No. 1 Division and No. 2 Division was built, allowing prisoners to be moved to and from the new workshop complex.

The workshops included a tailor shop – producing staff and prisoner uniform; boot shop – making boots worn by prisoners, mat-shop – making mats, mattresses ad hammocks; brush-shop – brushes and brooms; hat shop – hats worn by prisoners; bookbinding.

A new carpenter’s shop was dedicated to woodwork – to manufacture articles needed in government institutions such as schools.  In May 1930 a new warder- carpenter was employed to teach that trade to prisoners.

After the opening of the new workshops the old female workshops was converted into an additional cell block to cope with the expected increase in prison population.

 

In this episode of BOGGO, Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Coordinator discuss the Workshops, the cost of their construction and some of their interesting features as well as their crucial role in everyday prison life.  Tune in to BOGGO the official podcast of Boggo Road Gaol to hear more.

You can stand in the former female workshops now D Wing cell block every day on our History Tour for tour times and prices visit www.boggoroadgaol.com

BOGGO S2 E8 – Rules and Regs – Treatment, Discipline and Conduct

BOGGO S2 E8 – Rules and Regs – Treatment, Discipline and Conduct

In 1959 a new Prisons Act came into force. Sweeping away out of date procedures, clarifying roles and improving prisoner’s rights. The act laid out clearly punishments and the powers of prison officers.  Every officer was expected to know the regulations like the back of his hand. Part 12 of the Regulations – Treatment, Discipline and Conduct of Prisoners would form the crucial foundation that would determine the day to day management in the prison.  The rules and regs would decide what prisoners and officers could and couldn’t do…

Formally gazetted on the 14th of March 1959, the new Prisons Act would replace the far out-dated 1890 Act.   The Prisons Act is an essential piece of legislation that governs how prisons and places of punishment in the state are managed. It governs what the prisoners and the prisons officers can do and what they were not permitted to do under any circumstances.

By 1957, it was very clear that the old regulations had well and truly passed their usefulness.  In February 1957, Boggo Road Gaol was overcrowded, and trouble was at fever pitch. Young men locked up in cramped conditions- sometimes three to a cell were increasingly rebelling.

Fever strikes again

At 8AM on Saturday, 2nd February 1957, two prisoners, Potter and Gallagher broke from the morning muster and climbed up onto the roof of C Wing Cellblock. As their feet burned on the hot corrugated iron, they shouted their demands.

We want a public inquiry. We aren’t animals.  We can’t eat the food. You ask for better conditions and what happens – the stick you in the black dungeon….

This was not the only trouble at this time, but perhaps it was the one that garnished the most attention.  Two weeks later as a result of the inquiry that was the subject of the prisoners demands heads rolled at Boggo Road.

Superintendent William O’Connor who citing ill health requested to be relieved of his post.  After having controlled Brisbane Prison for 17 years, O’Connor would remain in the prison service as Chief Warder until 1965.

Deputy Comptroller-General Stewart Kerr was appointed Acting Superintendent of Brisbane Jail until a replacement could be found.    Comptroller- General Mr. W. Rutherford was moved sideways to State Migration Officer. Rutherford had been in the role nine years, since 1948.

Stewart Kerr was appointed Comptroller-General of Prisons on the 21st of November 1957, determined to improve the situation in Queensland’s prisons.  In a radical departure from tradition, Kerr personally attended Brisbane Prison every week and was present during roll-call. Any prisoner could raise his hand and request to speak to the C.G.  To raise matters of concern without fear of recrimination. It was unheard of.

Re-writing the Rules

Stewart Kerr, a steely-eyed former detective sat with his wife, personally hand crafting the new act with a typewriter at his kitchen table.  He knew every line of the 1890 act and the regulations, and he knew it needed desperate rewriting.   In 1959 the new Prisons Act of 1958 and Regulations was enacted repealing the old Prisons Act of 1890 and Regulations – 70 long years after the last major overhaul.

In every cell, every prisoner had a copy of the regulations. It was more often than not the only reading material allowed.  When the new regulations were released in 1959, they replaced the very well used 1890 regulations. A crisp new copy was placed in every cell and would remain there until the Kennedy inquiry nearly thirty years later.

Just as before, officers were expected to know the Act and the Regulations like the back of their hand.  The prisoners too, would benefit from knowing the regulations … it will allow them to know the rules and of course how to break them!


In this episode of BOGGO, Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Coordinator discuss some of the interesting regulations of the 1959 Act, as they pertain to the Treatment, Discipline and Conduct of prisoners (and officers). More importantly, the effect that these changes would have made to officers and prisoners alike.

 

BOGGO S2 E7- The Great Escape

BOGGO S2 E7 – The Great Escape

The 1980s were the most turbulent decade in the history of Boggo Road Gaol. Riots, roof-top protests and hunger-strikes by prisoners became the norm. On Saturday 11 March 1989 the biggest mass-breakout ever took place when eight prisoners managed to escape Brisbane Prison. Officers remember it as the “Laundry Truck Escape”. Journalists called it the “Great Escape”. Prisoners called it the “Boggo Road Fun Run”.   

The 1980s were the most turbulent decade in the history of Boggo Road Gaol.

Riots, roof-top protests and hunger-strikes by prisoners became the norm. On Saturday 11 March 1989 the biggest mass-breakout ever took place when eight prisoners managed to escapeBrisbane Prison.

Officers remember it as the “Laundry Truck Escape”. Journalists called it the “Great Escape”. Prisoners called it the “Boggo Road Fun Run”.

As the prison laundry van readied to leave No.1 Division, 30 prisoners exercising on a nearby oval raced towards the inner hydraulic gate. One got his leg caught as it closed; eight made it into the gatehouse.  Armed with replica guns, they forced officers to open a side door before fleeing down the driveway to a waiting vehicle under gunfire from the tower.

All were recaptured, including the mastermind of the escape Frankie Post, convicted rapist and armed robber.

Blame was laid on the gatehouse officer who was selling raffle tickets at the time of the escape – though this was unfair. He had not received an internal memo issued two days earlier warning an escape was planned. A breakdown of communication and chronic under-staffing were really to blame.

This dramatic escape is now part of Queensland’s prison history…


In this weeks episode Gaol Director Jack Sim and research coordinator Sue Olsen talk about this thrilling escape in detail. Listen to this week’s episode of BOGGO – The official podcast of Boggo Road Gaol – Here

For more information and for tour times and prices visit our website www.boggoroadgaol.com

Nine Stories Nine Women -9- Elizabeth Tabke

Nine Stories Nine Women -9- Elizabeth Tabke


Name (with aliases): Elizabeth Tabke– Elizabeth Ilsley; Bessie Ilsley; Elizabeth Taebke

Native Place:  Queensland

Year of Birth: 1894

Trade or Calling:  Domestic

Religion:  Church of England

Education: R & W

Height: 5 feet 5½ inches

Weight: 8 Stone

Hair:  Brown

Eyes: Grey

Complexion: Sallow

Build:  Slight

Features:  Four teeth missing upper jaw, three teeth missing lower jaw; Mole Left side of nose near eye; small mole under right eye at right side.


The terribly sad case of Elizabeth Tabke, a married woman with the desire for the nicer things.  She was unable to care for herself or her children and stole numerous amounts of jewellery from stores all over Brisbane which she pawned for money.  The court gave her several chances but little understanding.  She seemingly required money for her family, she certainly was not stealing for her own glamourous means.  Makes you question… was her married life all it was made out to be?

Elizabeth was born in February 1894 to Gustav and Alice Taebke in the sugar farming community of Tinana, Queensland.  Her childhood was a very tumultuous one.  Her father having a severe farming accident when she was just 11 years old sadly passing away a few days later in hospital.  Her mother, Alice, had just had a baby at the time.  Money was tight, the farming community in Tinana rallied around them. Alice remarried quite quickly, as was very typical of the day.

Soon enough Elizabeth would be married herself… though not legally.   Elizabeth would be in a relationship with a man named Ralph Joseph William Ilsley and they would have one child together. However, Ralph was already married and had deserted his wife and two children… before taking off to the first world war.   It is after she too is abandoned by Ralph… who has moved on to someone else that she first dabbles in crime.

 

Picture this, you are in post world war one Queensland.  Rations are scarce and you have a brand-new baby.  You would do just about anything to make ends meet.  She did, she tried to obtain money by false pretences.  Purchasing four watches, and then trying to sell them as a product worth much more.  Of course, the judge was lenient, this was her first charge.  If she would pay the restitution she would be released on good behaviour.  Elizabeth was lucky.

This was the beginning of a shameful spiral for Elizabeth. Every year, seemingly around February and March, Elizabeth ran out of money.  She would steal items like jewellery, watches, silver cutlery. Just about anything of value.  Occasionally she stole some clothing… a dress, some underwear, baby clothing.   Elizabeth was clearly living in difficult circumstances.

 

In 1921, Elizabeth serves her first stint in Boggo Road Gaol, six months with hard labour for stealing. After being released from this term she commits another stealing offence.  Again however, Elizabeth is lucky, the judge takes pity on her and releases her to the care of the Salvation Army Home for wayward ladies.

Sadly, their tutelage had little effect and Elizabeth was in trouble time and time again for stealing. Each time in court, she would declare the same circumstances. She was stealing to feed her family.  Which was very true.  They were living in a rented room with little furniture.  In 1924, another six months in Boggo Road Gaol.

Seemingly again things seemed to be turning around for Elizabeth, in 1925 she met William Archibald Sheppard. The two were married in January of 1926.  Not long after their first child was born.  Elizabeth, however, could not help herself.  She wanted to create a beautiful home for her new family.  She again committed crimes to provide her with money.  The couple would then have a second child in 1928.

 

In July 1930, Elizabeth would make a big mistake.  She would steal from a fortitude Valley Jewellers some wristlet watches and pawn them for money.  When the police caught up with her… they also added thirteen charges that were committed in 1926… that they had been looking for her for years under her maiden name Taebke!

Elizabeth would again be sent to Boggo Road Gaol.  This time for fourteen months, her longest ever sentence.  Elizabeth would serve a full nine months before being released from Gaol.  This would be her last charge.   Elizabeth died in the Diamantina Hospital just three years later of a condition called Tuberculosis.  A terrible lung complaint that is often carried for some years before killing the victim. Evidence that Elizabeth had had the condition for some time is that she had significant muscle wastage and was in frail health.

 

Her husband William would remarry just seven months later. He had three small children that needed care. Eventually he would have two more children.  William passed away in 1939.

Both Elizabeth and William were buried in Toowong Cemetery, Brisbane.   William in a beautifully marked war grave in portion ten.  Elizabeth, in an unmarked hospital burial plot.  Elizabeth had a hard life, full of tragedy and difficult circumstances.

Elizabeth made a lot of silly mistakes in her life, however, the circumstances in which she found herself made things seem utterly hopeless. Options were few.  Elizabeth did what she had to do to make sure that she could support her family.

 


The story of Elizabeth Tabke is the last of our Nine Stories Nine Women series.  We would like to thank all of the visitors that came to Boggo Road Gaol during Queensland Women’s Week 2019. We would also like to thank all of you that experienced the gaol via these stories and our podcasts.  It has been our pleasure to share with you just some of the many stories of the women of Boggo Road Gaol. 

Each Thursday we share our free podcast BOGGO and full accompanying written stories.  Be sure to check back here each week to find more interesting tales of the prisoners of Boggo Road Gaol. Also, if you haven’t already… follow us on Facebook and Instagram to keep up to date with all the goings on around the Gaol.   We look forward to locking you up again soon!

For more information and for tickets, times and prices please visit www.boggoroadgaol.com

Nine Stories Nine Women – 8- May Chenery

Nine Stories Nine Women -8- May Chenery

In keeping with the theme of Queensland Women’s Week 2019 – Invest in Women, Invest in the future.  Talking about financial insecurity and literacy.    The stories of the women of Boggo Road Gaol directly represent what goes wrong when women are faced with financial insecurity and other difficult circumstances.
This year, in honour of these women we have produced Nine Stories Nine Women a series of short stories representative of the different circumstances that women found themselves in.  May Chenery is the eighth of our nine stories.

 


Name (with aliases): May Chenery– no aliases

Native Place:  Queensland

Year of Birth: 1905

Trade or Calling:  Domestic

Religion:  Church of England

Education: R & W

Height: 4 feet 10 inches

Weight: 6 Stone 5 pounds

Hair:  Brown

Eyes: Brown

Complexion: Fresh

Build:  Slight

Features:  False teeth upper jaw

 


The extraordinary case of May Chenery is one for the books. Convicted of conspiracy to defraud, she with her lover were sentenced to time in Boggo Road Gaol. However, at the trial her lover threw himself on the mercy of the court, begging that she be set free… that she was a victim of circumstance.  The Judge saw things a little differently…Built in a tiny frame of an even smaller woman is one incredible story.

May Chenery was born in 1905 to Ernest George Chenery and his wife Olivette Louise Francis.   Ernest was an employee in the Post and Telegraph office and would eventually work as postmaster all-over north-western Queensland.   Well educated May was certainly an astute woman.

In 1926 She went into business for herself.  She became a travelling saleswoman, selling all kinds of articles to households in the western districts of north Queensland. It was in from her home in Mackay she was running her business.   It was here that she met her silver fox.   An older very successful man by the name of William Jackson.   William a leading optometrist in the northern district.   He was twenty-four years her senior, married and had a family residing in Sydney.

May however was instantly in love.  He was everything she dreamed of… successful, handsome and presently apart from his wife and child.

Business was booming, May made quite the living for herself even purchasing herself a motor car.  This was until 1929.

Conspiracy

On the 8th of June 1929 it was alleged in court that William Jackson and May Chenery obtained goods by deceit from the Diamond Slipper Company of Sydney.  A manufacturer of shoes and slippers.   The value of the goods was in excess of £700.  In court, in their defence William Jackson stated that the company had tried “Salting” May Chenery and that they would get exactly the amount they deserved “Nothing”

Salting – it was described was sending goods in an out of date design at a price far above their reasonable value.

Allegedly, the Diamond Slipper Company salted May and the goods were valueless.   However, it would come to light in court, that the company was not the only one to fall victim to William Jackson and May Chenery and that a total of £1250 worth of goods was missing and only £200 had been recovered during the ensuing investigation by police.

The evidence against the pair was enormous.  The jury were not out very long when they came back with a verdict of Guilty against both parties.

They were convicted of Conspiracy to defraud The Diamond Slipper Company.  They were referred to the bankruptcy court for the attempted recovery of any monies.  In sentencing the following extraordinary scenes took place.

William Jackson – “I am prepared to stand all of the sentence you give us two, only give it to me and let this young woman go free” Jackson appealed. “she had absolutely nothing to do with this. No idea came into her head to conspire with me.  She has been absolutely wonderful to me, and I have had some domestic trouble. She was a simple victim of circumstance.”

Justice Henchman in passing sentence of 12 months imprisonment with Hard Labour in the case of William Jackson and 9 months in the case of May Chenery.

Justice Henchman – “ I could not properly take the view that you were merely a tool. I assume that you were fully cognisant of what you were doing.”  However, Justice Henchman agreed that Jackson was the more dominant personality and May, had over reached her good judgement.

So, on the 2nd of June 1930, May Chenery and William Jackson took the long ride to Boggo Road Gaol.

 


This case gets better yet!

For the first time in Queensland history a full bankruptcy court was held inside the walls of Boggo Road Gaol especially for this case.  Six months into their sentence, May and William were again before the court, this time in the chapel of Boggo Road Gaol.

Interestingly, May was released just 12 days after this court was held.   Thankfully for May this was the end of her troubles.  She returned to the free world without William Jackson.   She married in 1942 and moved to Sydney.   Sadly, May Chenery died at the age of 45 in Sydney.  Her husband only surviving her by three years.


Come and get locked up in Boggo Road Gaol for International Women’s Day Experience what life was like for the women from the earliest times of the female division in our fully immersive tour experience Join us for a History Tour on the 8th of March to be a part of our very special International Women’s Day event.

Tickets for International Women’s Day are strictly limited so get in quickly to secure your spot.  You do not want to miss this! Click here to book now! 

 

BOGGO S2 E6  –  Queensland Women’s Week

BOGGO S2 E6  –  Queensland Women’s Week

In this episode Gaol Director Jack Sim and Research Co-Ordinator Sue Olsen discuss Queensland Women’s Week 2019, how it is being celebrated with exciting events in Boggo Road Gaol and Sue makes a very special announcement!

Queensland Women’s Week (March 1 – 9) is our chance to celebrate how women have helped to weave the fabric of our state.   In Boggo Road Gaol, Women are an all too often forgotten piece of the story.   Indeed, the only remaining section of Boggo Road Gaol, was built especially for women!

In keeping with the theme of Queensland Women’s Week 2019 – Invest in Women, Invest in the future.  Talking about financial insecurity and literacy.    The stories of the women of Boggo Road Gaol directly represent what goes wrong when women are faced with financial insecurity and other difficult circumstances.

This year, in honour of these women we have produced Nine Stories Nine Women a series of short stories representative of the different circumstances that women found themselves in.  These women all from the 1930’s era of Boggo Road Gaol represent a very small selection of the surviving records and photographs.

During Queensland Women’s Week we will be sharing the Nine Stories of Nine Women in full via our website.  You can find the stories here https://boggoroadgaol.com/stories/

Announcement

Coming up on International Women’s Day (8th March) at Boggo Road Gaol, our Research Coordinator Sue Olsen will deliver a short speech announcing the completion of a project that has been undertaken by the research department over the past year.

The project, which has compiled a database of the women from Boggo Road Gaol’s earliest time period is the beginning of the most comprehensive collection of female prison records.   Sue will discuss the future of the project and how you can become involved!  So come along and join us for a cup of tea in celebration of International Women’s Day and hear all about it.

 Special Event

As the culmination of Queensland Women’s Week and in celebration of International Women’s Day we are hosting a Free Morning Tea this Friday 8th of March 2019.  To join us for morning tea you simply need to book your spot and come along on our 11am fully immersive History Tour.. experience Boggo Road Gaol from the inside the gates.


Listen to this week’s episode of BOGGO – The official podcast of Boggo Road GaolHere

Come and get locked up in Boggo Road Gaol for International Women’s Day Experience what life was like for the women from the earliest times of the female division in our fully immersive tour experience Join us for a History Tour on the 8th of March to be a part of our very special International Women’s Day event.

Tickets for International Women’s Day are strictly limited so get in quickly to secure your spot.  You do not want to miss this! Click here to book now! 

 

Nine Stories Nine Women -7- Mary Agnes Ward

Nine Stories Nine Women -7-  Mary Agnes Ward

In keeping with the theme of Queensland Women’s Week 2019 – Invest in Women, Invest in the future.  Talking about financial insecurity and literacy.    The stories of the women of Boggo Road Gaol directly represent what goes wrong when women are faced with financial insecurity and other difficult circumstances.
This year, in honour of these women we have produced Nine Stories Nine Women a series of short stories representative of the different circumstances that women found themselves in.  Mary Agnes Ward is the seventh of our nine stories.

Name (with aliases):  Mary Agnes Ward

Year of Birth: 1924

Trade or Calling:  Laundress

Religion:  Roman Catholic

Education:  R & W

Height: 5 feet 8 inches

Weight: 8 stone 7 pounds

Hair: Brown

Eyes:  Blue/Green

Complexion: Fresh

Build:  Slight

Features:  Two missing Fingers Right hand.

 


19-year-old Mary Agnes Ward, is the definition of victim of circumstance.  A former ward of the state she was released from care directly into poverty.  Begging on the streets she was caught up in the cleanse by police of Brisbane from vagrants or undesirable girls…

Frustratingly, very little is obtainable about Mary Agnes Ward.  The records of her early life being sealed under strict regulations.   However, we do know that Mary was a ward of the state and had recently been released from care when she was caught up in a massive cleanse of Brisbane by the police.

What does it mean to be a ward of the state?  A child can be made a ward of the state, even if the parents are alive. Usually, this happens when the parents become incompetent to take care of the child due to reasons like mental illness, chronic substance abuse, or physical disability. … Children who are in trouble with law are also often made wards of the state.

Mary was charged twice in the same year, only having been out of Boggo Road Gaol for a number of days before being charged the second time.  Each charge was for having insufficient means of support.   Basically she was in poverty and had no money to support herself.

Now this insufficient means was also a tricky charge.  A person could be charged with insufficient means  or Vagrancy simply as a charge to take you off the street as an “undesirable”   Poverty then as it is today seen by some to be a filthy, lazy existence… however as we know it can be absolutely the complete opposite.

The Cleanse

At this time, we are in the midst of the second world war… Brisbane has been thrust onto the world stage when soldiers from the United States of America came to port here for some desperately needed Rest and Relaxation.   Also Brisbane served as part of the port system for the Pacific Fleet.  The arrival of the soldiers brought with it… women from all over Queensland seeking a good fellow to marry them and perhaps even see the world.  It also brought to town women solely with the purpose of making a quick dollar off of the visiting men.   It is thought that newly freed Mary was more looking for a fellow to help her escape.

However, being poverty stricken that was terribly unlikely she was much more likely to fall into the trap of being a lady used for entertainment and getting roped into making a quick dollar instead.

Seemingly though, Mary resisted this temptation.  Unfortunately for her, the police charged by the government were keeping an eye out for any seemingly undesirable women and locking them up. Sweeping the street clean so to speak.   Of course, this only worked for as long as they were locked up!

Thankfully when Mary was released from Boggo Road Gaol, she married and turned her life around.  A happy ending for a victim of circumstance.  As with the beginning of her story, the ending is not really known either. Mary does not appear in the records of Boggo Road Gaol again…


Come and get locked up in Boggo Road Gaol for International Women’s Day Experience what life was like for the women from the earliest times of the female division in our fully immersive tour experience Join us for a History Tour on the 8th of March to be a part of our very special International Women’s Day event.

Tickets for International Women’s Day are strictly limited so get in quickly to secure your spot.  You do not want to miss this! Click here to book now! 

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